A középkor végi angliai és magyarországi birtokostársadalom összehasonlítása

Szántó, Richárd: A középkor végi angliai és magyarországi birtokostársadalom összehasonlítása. Acta Universitatis Szegediensis : acta historica, (112). pp. 19-35. (2002)

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Abstract

Noblemen have been considered as dukes, marquises, earls, vicomtes and barons in English historical literature. The term gentlefolk is applied to knights, esquires and gentlemen. Nobleman had more privileges and rights than gentlefolk in England. Hungarian landowner society was unified by same rights. One term (nemesség) developed denoting the Hungarian landowners. Group of Hungarian noblemen consisted of great landowners, gentry and poor gentlemen. The most important social difference appeared between noblemen and villeins in medieval Hungary. Noblemen possessed political rights and they were under jurisdiction of the king, but villeins belonged to manorial courts. Property of Hungarian nobleman was not feudal fee, because there was no military or other service on it. Free peasantry did not develope between noblemen and villeins in Hungary, but there was free peasantry in England. The most important rights of Hungarian nobility: 1. Nobody could arrest nobleman without judgement. Nobleman could be condemned by only royal courts. 2. Hungarian noblemen were under the power of legally crowned king. 3. Profit of manors and lands of nobility were exempt from rents, tax, customs and services to the king. Noblemen must do military service to defend the country within its boundaries. This was general ethical obligation of noblemen. 4. According to perpetual privilege of Hungarian nobility could resist the king without felony. Hungarian noblemen had equal legal status from 1351 to the end of 15th century, when Hungarian hereditary barony evolved and barons got special privileges. Every Hungarian nobleman could hold any office of kingdom without restriction. English landowner society consisted of noblemen, gentry, gentlemen and free peasants with freehold. They had different rights, and their legal status was not same. 1. Nobody could arrest freeman without judgement, and freemen could enter an action against other freemen in royal courts. 2. English tenants could be under the power of the king or other lords. 3. English noblemen and gentry paid feudal aids, poll tax and income tax. 4. English noblemen with political society of England had right of resistance against the king who made breach of the law. Conditions of English office holding were freehold, income, property and social backround.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Acta Universitatis Szegediensis : acta historica
Date: 2002
Volume: 112
Page Range: pp. 19-35
ISSN: 0324-6965
Language: magyar
Uncontrolled Keywords: Történelemtudomány, Társadalomtörténet
Additional Information: Bibliogr. a lábjegyzetekben; Ismertetett mű: Richárd Szántó: Comparison of Hungarian and English landowner society of the late middle ages
Date Deposited: 2016. Oct. 15. 07:56
Last Modified: 2018. Apr. 16. 13:48
URI: http://acta.bibl.u-szeged.hu/id/eprint/2888

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