Niképhoros Phókas és a szkíták

Balogh László: Niképhoros Phókas és a szkíták.

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Abstract

The Byzantine army of Asia Minor proclaimed Nicephorus Phocas as emperor in 963. He told them - according to Leon Diaconus - that they should expect a serious civil war. Previously they fought bravely against Cretans, Scythians and Arabs, but they now had to fight against their own countrymen. Nicephorus Phocas' army invaded the island of Crete in the summer of 960. The besiegers conquered the capital city, Kandia, in 961. As a result of the victory, after one and a half centuries of Muslim rule, the island again became part of the Byzantine Empire. Almost at exactly the same time, Nicephorus Phocas's brother, Leon Phocas defeated the prince of Hamdanids, Sayf ad-Daula's army on 8 November 960. After the successful campaign to Crete, Nicephorus Phocas continued the war against the Hamdanids. As a result, the capital of Sayf ad-Daula, Aleppo fell into the hands of the Byzantines in 962 with the exception of its citadel. It appears that the fighting against Cretans and Arabs which is mentioned in Nicephorus Phocas' speech refers to these two victorious wars. It is obvious that Nicephoros Phocas (or Leon Diakonos, who attributes the speech to him) wanted to refer well-know, recent events in the case of the war against the Scythians. Who were the Scythians'? Bulgarians, Russians, Pechenegs or Hungarians? Bulgarians cannot be these Scythians. There was peace between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria at this time, which only ended after Nikephorus Phokas occupied the throne. Similarly, we know of no Russian or Pecheneg attack before the 950-960s that reached the Byzantine Empire. In contrast, the Hungarians were a serious threat to the Byzantine Empire in the 950-960s. Although these attacks were beaten back by the Byzantine army, but Byzantine soldiers were able to experience how dangerous their enemy was. It is clear, that Nicephorus Phocas mentions three dangerous enemies: the Arab warriors on the island of Crete, the army of Hamdanids in Asia Minor, and the Scythians namely Hungarians in the Balkans.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Other title: Nicephorus Phocas and the Scythians
Heading title: A Kárpát-medence 9-10. századi története
Journal or Publication Title: Középkortörténeti tanulmányok
Date: 2012
Volume: 7
ISBN: 978-963-306-160-2
Page Range: pp. 281-287
Language: Hungarian
Event Title: Medievisztikai PhD-konferencia (7.) (2012) (Szeged)
Related URLs: http://acta.bibl.u-szeged.hu/65435/
Uncontrolled Keywords: Kárpát-medence népei - középkor, Szkíták története - 10. sz., II. Niképhorosz - császár, Bizánc története - 10. sz.
Additional Information: Bibliogr.: p. 285-286. és a lábjegyzetekben ; összefoglalás angol nyelven
Subjects: 06. Humanities
06. Humanities > 06.01. History and archaeology
Date Deposited: 2020. Feb. 13. 14:28
Last Modified: 2022. Nov. 08. 10:58
URI: http://acta.bibl.u-szeged.hu/id/eprint/65343

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