Magyar államszervezet a X. században

Szabados György: Magyar államszervezet a X. században. pp. 85-129. (2013)

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A remarkable phenomenon characterized Central Europe during its early medieval period. As the Huns, the Avars and the Hungarians (during their heathen period) ruled the Carpathian Basin one after another, they represented a type of state current in the Eurasian steppes. These steppe empires provided an alternative to the post-Roman model of government. My paper focuses on the structure of the third Central European steppe empire which can be called the Hungarian Great Principality. This is a subsequent term for the Hungarian state between c. 850–1000 but based on two independent contemporary sources. The monarch of Hungary was mentioned as „megas arkhon” and „senior magnus”: both of these mean ’great princeps’. What kind of structure characterized the Hungarian state during the 10th century? The most detailed description was given by the 40th chapter of De Administrando Imperio. In his political work Constantine VII Emperor of Byzantium mentioned eight units and separated three levels of the highest dignities. „The first is this aforesaid clan (γενεά) of the Kabaroi which split off from the Chazars; the second, of Nekis; the third, of Megeris; the fourth, of Kourtogermatos; the fifth, of Tarianos; the sixth, Genach; the seventh, Kari; the eight, Kasi… These eight clans (γενεαί) of the Turks do not obey their own particular princes ( ρχοντας), but have a joint agreement to fight together with all earnestness and zeal upon te rivers, wheresoever war breaks out. They have for their first chief ( ρχοντα) the prince who comes by sucession of Arpad’s family (γενε ς), and two others, the gylas and the carchas, who have the rank of the judge; and each clan has a prince (γενε ρχοντα). Gylas and karchas are not proper names, but dignities.” We have philological problems concerning the senses of genea because it means usually ’clan’ rather than ’tribe’. Neither Hungarian chronicles, nor any other external datas not prove the existence of tribal system during this period, we can be sure that the ancient organisation of the clans had been shadowed by the rising central power in the middle of 9th century when great prince Álmos was elected. The frame of the clan-system became totally disintegrated by the monarchy. This result can be strenghtened by further aspects: the raids and alliances are based on a strong will and unified conception of a centralized power which filled the whole existence of the Hungarian Great Principality.

Item Type: Book Section
Other title: The Hungarian state-structure in the 10th century
Date: 2013
Volume: 1
ISBN: 978-963-306-187-9
Page Range: pp. 85-129
Series Name: Műhelyszemináriumi dolgozatok
Related URLs:
Uncontrolled Keywords: Magyarország története - 10. sz.
Additional Information: Bibliogr.: p. 124-128. és a lábjegyzetekeben ; összefoglalás angol nyelven
Subjects: 06. Humanities
06. Humanities > 06.01. History and archaeology
06. Humanities > 06.01. History and archaeology > 06.01.01. History
06. Humanities > 06.01. History and archaeology > 06.01.01. History > Medieval history
Date Deposited: 2020. Dec. 14. 10:41
Last Modified: 2020. Dec. 14. 10:41

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