International reforms on asylum policy and refugee protection in Turkey : from neighbour to roommate

Kılıç Tuğçe: International reforms on asylum policy and refugee protection in Turkey : from neighbour to roommate.

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Turkey is in the cross-road of Asia, Europe, the Balkans, the Caucasus, and Middle East. Due to this geographical location, it has always destined to be on the way of asylum seekers and refugees during the history. It has not only been a target country to reach but also a transit country for whom are defined as irregular migrants, especially the ones seeking for an asylum in European countries. Being a country in the target and/or transit way of asylum seekers and refugees, Asylum and Refugee Policy of Turkey was determined mostly within the geographical limits of Geneva Convention, 1951. Therefore, it could not prepare a long-term national migration policy which would help it in the time of “crisis” which needed to be responded by the international community. This fact caused Turkey to have ended up with inadequate legal, institutional and physical background for a long time and faced with problems at the time of massive influxes. The year 2013 is considered as a turning point for the Asylum and Refugee Policy of Turkey. The Foreigners and International Protection Law was adopted and this brought a new, human-rights and international-norm oriented approach. This is a result of negotiations with supranational and intergovernmental entities such as European Union, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, International Organization for Migration, and rulings of the European Court of Human Rights. During the history, Turkey faced with two major refugee influxes namely 1988/1991 Iraqi Kurdish Refugee flow which had been the major crisis post-Cold War era and 2011 onwards Syrian Refugee flow. At the beginning, it can be seen that Turkey tried to solve these two crises with the same approach: creation of no-fly zones, safe shelters inside the refugees’ country of origin etc. However, evolution of the Syrian Refugee Crisis caught Turkey unprepared and it was realized that Syrian “guests” sheltered in the temporary protection would not be staying that short. At this point, Turkey needed to go for a change in the policies. With the Syrian case, Turkey implemented the new law namely the Foreigners and International Protection Law and at the same time it had international support. As one of the major initiatives, the European Union created Joint Action Plan with Turkey. By this plan, the crises attempted to be regionalized and by this way, further mobility to Europe could be diminished. Taking this crucial policy change and implementation of brand new law as a turning point, this paper evaluates how exactly these external supranational and intergovernmental bodies affect the domestic political grounds? What kind of the mechanisms of influences they implemented? How far the crisis would be regionalized? In order to create a more humane, fair and efficient asylum policy; a real, stronger International Cooperation should be implemented. By this way, it would be possible to establish a solid, coherent and long-term asylum policy.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Journal or Publication Title: Jog határok nélkül
Date: 2018
Volume: 8
ISSN: 2063-3807
ISBN: 978-963-306-640-9
Page Range: pp. 131-139
Series Name: Szegedi Jogász Doktorandusz Konferenciák
Language: English
Place of Publication: Szeged
Event Title: Jog határok nélkül (2017) (Szeged)
Related URLs:
Uncontrolled Keywords: Menekültügy - Törökország
Additional Information: Bibliogr. a lábjegyzetekben ; összefoglalás angol nyelven
Subjects: 05. Social sciences
05. Social sciences > 05.05. Law
05. Social sciences > 05.06. Political science
Date Deposited: 2022. Mar. 25. 13:49
Last Modified: 2023. Dec. 05. 11:25

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