Újabb eredmények a honfoglaló magyarság étkezési kultúrájának feltárásában : Edelény-Borsodi földvár ételmaradványainak vizsgálata

Gyulai, Ferenc: Újabb eredmények a honfoglaló magyarság étkezési kultúrájának feltárásában : Edelény-Borsodi földvár ételmaradványainak vizsgálata. In: A honfoglalás kor kutatásának legújabb eredményei : tanulmányok Kovács László 70. születésnapjára. pp. 715-734. (2013)

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Abstract

The archaeological heritage of eastern steppe cultures has always been the closest to Hungarians from among all the peoples living in the Carpathian Basin. Their costumes, lifestyle, warfare and even their cooking culture show similar features and it is not difficult to recognise in them the traditions of the Eastern European steppe. The heritage of steppe people can be clearly seen in the eating habits of the conquering Hungarians. Carbonised food remains preserved a message from the distant past. More than one book was written on the imaginary cuisine of the conquering Hungarians, based on ethnographical and archaeological analogies. However, it was not very long ago that the first food remains associated with the conquering Hungarians were found at the 10,h century site of Lébény-Billedomb (excavation led by Miklós Takács). These were carbonised fragments of mush/bread. Similar remains were found from the Early Árpádian Period site of Gyomaendrőd (excavation by Dénes B. Jankovich 1987-90) and from the Árpádian Period site found at the exploration of the MO motorway in Rákospalota-Újmajor (excavation by Zoltán Bencze 1995-96). These gruel-like foods prepared from common millet imply the survival of nomadic eating habits. When exploring Edelény-Földvár in 1998, Mária Wolf found clay pots placed on their sides near the oven of a burnt house from the 10th century. On the side of one of the pots burnt food remains were discovered. The three samples received for analysis came from different parts of the pot. Analytical chemical examinations were made by János Csapó, the microscopical and macroscopical analysis were conducted by the author. Investigations led to the conclusion that a one-course dish found in a pot was made of cereal groats of common bread wheat and rye, which was first roasted in fat (most probably in mutton tallow) (see the flour particles from the cereal aleuron layer). Onions and/or garlic (based on epidermal sections of onion leaf) and roots (parsnip or carrot vascular bundle fragments) were added. The mixture was then thinned, apparently with water. Microelement ratios and the amino acid composition suggest that the one-course dish had meat in it as well. In 2001 three more carbonised food remnants were examined, all coming from the excavation carried out in the area of the Edelény-Borsod motte. All three specimens were taken from an in situ exposed pot. Two of them came from 1992 excavations and one from 1998. The two remains from the 1992 exploration were obviously similar. Though the two 1992 samples contain two different foods, they are remains of the same onecourse dish. A common feature is that fine cereal flour/ grist was mixed with millet (in the second case, setaria). Findings of sample 1 proved that the gruel was enriched with meat. Based on the fatty acid composition, this must have been mutton. They consisted of seeds stuck together as in a gruel and embedded in fine groats. The burnt fragments had a characteristic surface created during cooking. They contained evenly mixed grains embedded in some fine kind of grist. One of them contained exclusively chaffed grains of common millet (Panicum miliaceum), while the other had more foxtail millet (Setaria italica) (also husked), and less common millet. The latter also contained a few field pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense) seeds. The third remain from the year 1998 was different from the rest at the first sight. Seeds and carbonised forest fruits fell out at the slightest mechanical impact from the smaller and larger incremented pieces, which were also mixed with daub. Most of the remains originated from sloe (Prunus spinosa). Beside the stones, mummified sloe, blackthorn fruits were also found in great abundance. We also found wild pear (Pyrus spec.) seeds, crab apple (Malus silvestris) fruit mummy, rose (Rosa spec.) mummified hips, cornelian cherry or dogwood (Cornus mas) and carbonised shells as well. The fragments also contained a stone of danewort (Sambucus ebulus). However, its reddish colour indicated it did not come from the food but rather from the daub. This remnant is different from any other tested so far. It seems that forest fruits (mainly sloe or blackthorn, but also crab apple, wild pear, rose, cornelian cherry as well) were used to make lictarium, a favourite delicacy in the Middle Ages, somewhat thinner than marmalade today; or “peszmeg”, a kind of fruit juice preserved by cooking, sweetened by honey, which required left constant stirring. Cooking was still underway — not all the fruits had flesh and stone had been separated — when the operation had to be abandoned suddenly for some unknown reason. The event must have happened around October as indicated by the assortment of the fruit species present that can be found together only in autumn. Lippay (1664) describes in “Posoni kert” all the fruits found here noting that excellent lictarium can be made of them with the use of honey, spices and wine.

Item Type: Book Section
Other title: New results by the study of the gastronomic knowledge of the conquering Hungarians analysis on food remains of Edelény-Borsod motte
Journal or Publication Title: A honfoglalás kor kutatásának legújabb eredményei : tanulmányok Kovács László 70. születésnapjára
Date: 2013
ISSN: 2062-9877
ISBN: 978 963 306 241 8
Page Range: pp. 715-734
Series Name: Monográfiák a Szegedi Tudományegyetem Régészeti Tanszékéről
Related URLs: http://acta.bibl.u-szeged.hu/69838/
Uncontrolled Keywords: Régészet - leletek - Magyarország - középkor
Additional Information: Bibliogr.: p. 732-733. és a lábjegyzetekben ; ill. ; összefoglalás angol nyelven
Subjects: 06. Humanities
06. Humanities > 06.01. History and archaeology
06. Humanities > 06.01. History and archaeology > 06.01.02. Archaeology
06. Humanities > 06.01. History and archaeology > 06.01.02. Archaeology > 06.01.02.01. Archaeology, archaeometry, landscape archaeology
Date Deposited: 2020. Sep. 07. 13:07
Last Modified: 2020. Sep. 07. 13:07
URI: http://acta.bibl.u-szeged.hu/id/eprint/70054

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